Internationalization(I18N) vs Localization (L10N)

June 20, 2012

Internationalization is the process of designing a software application so that it can be adapted to various languages and regions without engineering changes. Localization is the process of adapting internationalized software for a specific region or language by adding locale specific components and translating text.


Interview Questions

November 22, 2011

AlMadina (Muscat) – 21st Nov 2011

1.Dynamic keyword  ? How it is different from VAR
2.How u will use func in delegate
3.Extension methods : When u will use
4.Anonmyous methods
5.Used WWF? How u will use NHibernate?

6.In WCF How u will publish the contract ? .         Ans :  thru wsdl   AMAC
7.U have a textbox , button .. u disabled viewstate for textbox. U typed some text in textbox.
       On click of button will the value be there?
8. What are the attributes used  in NUNIT ..
Ans : Class level we will use [testfixture] and method level we will use [testmethod]

Interview Questions C#

July 25, 2010


1. what is the difference between view and sp

views cannot take input parameters
sp can take
2. function and sp
3. different objects in sql … table,sp,view
4. different objects in table .. index,keys
5. what is abstract,interfaces
what is the default inheritance used in dotnet
what is multiple and multilevel inheritance
can we inherit multiple interfaces for the same class
what is overriding and overloading

in three tier if u r hardcoding no. of parameters if in future if u r increasing the no. of parameters then how u will handle

in master page u r having a button. how u will raise that event in child control
difference cache and viewstate
what are the steps in reporting services in offline mode
ans :datasets (xsd) files.

6. what is singleton and how to create

Dotnet Interview Questions Part 11- Accenture

December 3, 2009
  1. What is an interface?
  2. What do you know about web service?
  3. What is a nullable type?
  4. Difference between value type and reference type?
  5. Difference between hash table and array list?
  6. What is a web service?
  7. Diff between string and string builder?

      8.   Diff between user control and custom control. And how to use them?

Regarding the project:

1)      Project explanation

2)      What I have done in the project?

3)      How asked about the database tables and how they are used in the .NET code

4)      Currently what I am doing? For this I said there are some performance issues in the project so we are planning to redesign the project.

Then he asked how we are solving the issues?

SQL Server:

  1. What is a trigger?
  2. What are various types of joins?
  3. What are DML and DDL commands?
  4. Employee table:


EmpId EmpName Place City Country


If country is having null values write a query which replaces null values with India?

Ans : Select Empid, empname ,place,city ,isnull(Country,’india’) from Employee

5. Different types of joins

6. Write a query for Self Join?

Sharepoint Interview Questions part 4

November 28, 2009

1. What are the new features that are introduced in SP 2007?
2.Difference between WSS 3.0 and MOSS 2007?
3. What is a feature in SP?
4.What Application Definition File contains?
5.Difference between SPSite and SPWeb?
6. Explain Object model in Sharepoint?
7. Sharepoint Architecture?
8. Asynchronous and Synchronous events in Sp?

1. Difference b/w Site Definition and Site Template
2. Infopath
3. What is ghosting and unghosting?
4. Diff b/w SPSITE and SPWEB?
5. How to deploy Silverlight application in MOSS?
6. What are webparts?
7. How to write a query in a webpart using out of box functionality in SP?
8. What is Sharepoint?
9. What are the features available in MOSS 2007?
10.what is BDC and how to configure BDC in MOSS?
11.Difference between Solution and Feature?
12. Diff b/w Site Solution and web application?
13. What is Shared Service Provider contains?
14.Security Levels in Sharepoint?
15. In document library user level settings
16. Explain the steps in creating webparts?
17. Difference between solution and feature
18. Difference between Master page and Page Layout
19. Workflow types
20. Infopath forms
21. Difference between Form Library and Doc Library
22. What is collaboration portal
23. Search functionality
24. What is CAML query
25. what does BDC metaman contains
26. Event handling in Sharepoint
27.How to initiate workflow in Sharepoint
28.Difference between site definition and site template
29. How to change Themes
30. What is the use of css in sharepoint

Interview Questions Part 4 – Answers

November 5, 2009


TCS Mumbai


Error handling in Sql server 
      @@Rowcount , @@Error

Error handling in .Net                                                                                                                                                             Ans: try catch block can be used
How to pass parameters in stored procedures
     IN , OUT parameters


Passing Input and output parameters to SP:

create procedure sproc_employees

  @a1 int,
  @a1 int out
set @a1 =(select count(*) from employees_u where employeeID<@a1)
return @a1

Declare @op int
EXEC sproc_employees 5,@op OUT

create proc sp_nam( @a1 IN, @a1 OUT)
     Can we used the same parameter name as input and output.?

    Ans: No,we cannot give same parameter as input and output,it will throw error- “Variable names must be unique within a query batch or stored procedure”




Using the same parameter as input and output:



CREATE  PROCEDURE [dbo].[SP_GetEmpDetails]
@name  varchar(50) output,
@Empsalary varchar(50) output
 set  @name =(select EmployeeID from employees_u where LastName=@name)
 set  @Empsalary =(select Title from employees_u where EmployeeID=@name)
select @name,@Empsalary


Declare @op int
EXEC SP_GetEmpDetails ‘usha’,@op OUT


Here the first paramter is used as both input and output parameter.


Can we configure the Server of our application with 2 different versions of  

What is Polymorphism?
In function overloading can we  write as below:

  i. functionname(int a1)

         samefunctionname(float a1)

      ii. function(int a1)

          samefunction(int a1,int b1)


Can we remove global.asax file from our application?                                                                                                    Ans: When we create a new web application global.asax file is not added automatically so even if the file is not there the application works fairly well.we can add the file explicitly.
What is the use of global.asax file                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Ans:The Global.asax file, also known as the ASP.NET application file, is an optional file that contains code for responding to application-level events raised by ASP.NET or by HttpModules. The Global.asax file resides in the root directory of an ASP.NET-based application.The Global.asax file is optional. If you do not define the file, the ASP.NET page framework assumes that you have not defined any application or session event handlers.     
What are the events in global.asax file                                                                                                                            Ans:                                                                               
The Global.asax, also known as the ASP.NET application file, is located in the root directory of an ASP.NET application. This file contains code that is executed in response to application-level and session-level events raised by ASP.NET or by HTTP modules. You can also define ‘objects’ with application-wide or session-wide scope in the Global.asax file. These events and objects declared in the Global.asax are applied to all resources in that web application.
Methods corresponding to events that fire on each request
Application_BeginRequest() – fired when a request for the web application comes in.
Application_AuthenticateRequest –fired just before the user credentials are authenticated. You can specify your own authentication logic over here.
Application_AuthorizeRequest() – fired on successful authentication of user’s credentials. You can use this method to give authorization rights to user.
Application_ResolveRequestCache() – fired on successful completion of an authorization request.
Application_AcquireRequestState() – fired just before the session state is retrieved for the current request.
Application_PreRequestHandlerExecute() – fired before the page framework begins before executing an event handler to handle the request.
Application_PostRequestHandlerExecute() – fired after HTTP handler has executed the request.
Application_ReleaseRequestState() – fired before current state data kept in the session collection is serialized.
Application_UpdateRequestCache() – fired before information is added to output cache of the page.
Application_EndRequest() – fired at the end of each request
Methods corresponding to events that do not fire on each request
Application_Start() – fired when the first resource is requested from the web server and the web application starts.
Session_Start() – fired when session starts on each new user requesting a page.
Application_Error() – fired when an error occurs.
Session_End() – fired when the session of a user ends.
Application_End() – fired when the web application ends.
Application_Disposed() – fired when the web application is destroyed.
Can we have more than 2 machine.config files in IIS servers?
         Ans: 2 machine.config files  can be present in a machine ,machine.config files will be located  in C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727\CONFIG and it depends on the numver of .NET framework versions installed in the machine.

       Can we install 2 IIS versions in one system?

 what is the use of web.config and machine.config files? What is the difference between these 2 files?
What is the difference between HTML server control and Web Server control?
Say something about Datagrid? What is the use of Bound Columns? We gave AutoGenerateColumns = True and we have 3 BoundColumns out of 5 columns. How many columns are displayed in the grid? Ans: 5
 What is the use of autogenerate columns?                                                                                                                   Ans: If the DataGrid control’s AutoGenerateColumn property is set to true, the control will generate and display a bound column for each bindable column in the data source, the column names in the grid can be specified explicitly by setting it to false
Which one is better DataReader/DataSet in terms of performance?                           Ans:                                                                                                               We should use a DataSet populated by SqlDataAdapter when
1. We require a disconnected memory-resident cache of data so that we can pass to different component or layers
2. We are working wtih data retrived from multiple data sources.
3. We want to update some of all retrieved rows using batch updated provided by SqlDataAdapter
4. We want to perform data binding against a control that requires a data source that spport IList such as GridView, Repeater etc.                                                                   
We should use SqlDataReader by calling ExecuteReader method of SqlCommand object when
1. We are dealing with large volumes of data – too much to maintain in single cache.
2. We want to reduce the memory occupied by the application (using DataSet consumes memory)
3. We want to perform data binding with a control that supports a data source that implements IEnumerable
 Can we pass null values to stored procedures?
 Difference b/w Order BY and GROUP BY in SQL?                                                                                                            Ans: Groupby: It is a way to sub-total your results,or perform some other ‘aggregate’ functions on them.
Orderby: It is a simply a way to sort your results. It doesn’t affect what shows up in your result set,only what order it is displayed.             
How to submit one page information to another? Which methods are used? Ans: POST and GET 
POST  : Request.Form

GET :    Request.QueryString


If we are using Request then what is the default method it takes?

Ans : QueryString (doubt)  .Default Method of form is GET

Difference b/w Response.Redirect and Server.Transfer?

Server.Transfer processes the page from one page directly to the next page without making a round-trip back to the client’s browser. This way is faster, with a little less overhead on the server. However, it does NOT update the clients url history list or current url.

Response.Redirect, as expected, is used to redirect the user’s browser to another page or site. It DOES perform a trip back to the client where the client’s browser is actually redirected to the new page. The browser history list is updated to reflect the new address.

Can we connect 2 different databases of Sqlserver to our application? How to connect?
Can we connect oracle and sqlserver at the same time?
In web.config  <errors mode=Debug ,none,remote
In web.config <trace  mode = verbose, none
In web.config <sessionstate mode=sqlserver , stateserver inproc,outproc,stateserver
How to debug javascript function in frontend?  Ans: IE -> Tools -> Internet Options-> Advanced ->Uncheck  “Disable Script Debugging (IE)” and “Disable Script Debugging (others)”.
 <Compilation debug = true / false > ie Debug and Release.
In terms of performance which one is better? Ans: In the application itself we have bin folder. In Debug mode dll size is more and release mode dll is small.

Use Release mode in production as it removes breakpoints and dll size is less.

 What is viewstate?
 Can we write nested try catch blocks?
           we can write n number of catch blocks for a single try block. If errors occurs  

            only the related catch executes.

 Can we compare two dates in How?  Which control to use?  Eg: RegularExpression validator.  Don’t use Comparevalidator control (it is for string,int)
Repeater control
What do you know XML?
Diff b/w custom controls and user controls
Diff b/w Stored Procedure and function
select * from functionname …….. Can we write like this if the function is returning some table. Ans : Yes .
What are table valued, scalar valued functions.. Diff functions in Sqlserver
How do u execute Scalar Valued and table Valued functions in Sqlserver
Ans : select * from fucntionname …. (Table Valued function .. It returns table)

           Exec function functionname   .. (Scalar valued function .. It returns single value)



Gujarat Ahmedabad company

1.      How to provide pagination in Datagrid? Ans: AllowPaging = true ..Event(PageIndexChanging) to be written in codebehind.

2.      DBCC commands

3.      Viewstate . How they implemented ? Ans : Hidden value

       It is specific to the page

       What is the difference between ViewState and Hidden Values. 

4.      Sql Profiler

5.      What are views? Security

Read Only Views

If we change any value in view will it effect the backend table?

6.      What are Cursors? Types of Cursors?

7.      What is Stored Procedure? Give an example?

8.      How to submit one page information to another?

Session , Cache, QueryString, Cross Page post back

Get Post

9.      What are directives in   Different directives?

10.  Difference b/w Response.Redirect/ Server.Execute and Server.Transfer?

11.  What are joins? Types of Joins?

12.  Does C# supports multiple inheritance?

13.  What is an interface?

14.  Difference b/w interface and abstract class?

15.  What is a webservice?

16.  What is the formatting protocol used in Webservices ? Ans: SOAP

17.  Which one of the following is used in Webservices  – DataReader / DataSet/DataList    Ans: DataSet

18.  What is the difference b/w function overloading/ overriding?

19.  What is the difference b/w system.string and system.stringbuilder

Mutable .. immutable

20.  Difference b/w System.Int32 and int?

21.  Difference b/w String and string

22.  C# access modifiers

23.  What is normalization ? Different types of normalizations ?  Give examples?

24.  What is Denormalization? Why and when to denormalize?

25.  Dotnet features?

26.  Dotnet assemblies and types of assemblies

27.  What is the transmission protocol used in webservices ? Ans: HTTP

28.  What are the differences b/w ASP and ASP.Net?

29.  What is ADO.NET

30.  How many languages supports .Net?


INDPRO  (9/9/2006)


1.      What are SqlCommand objects methods? What is the difference b/w ExecuteNonQuery and ExecuteScalar?

2.      What is the diff b/w DataRepeater and DataList?

3.      What is the diff b/w Container.DataBind , Eval, Bind

Ans:  Eval for formatting the data like date format

           Bind directly binds and displays the db data as  it is.

4.      What is the diff b/w Array and ArrayList

5.      Difference b/w Hash Table and ArrayList

6.       What are Enumerations , Collections

7.      For raising an event of a control (which is present in usercontrol) where to write the code ( In usercontrol or webform)

8.      Page Life Cycle Events

9.      Mention Application and Sessions events of Global.asax

10.  When viewstate is loaded in  Page Life Cycle (Is it Init or Page Load)

11.   Template column in DataGrid? How hyperlink is used in datagrid?

12.  What is the use of webserver controls

13.  Page Directives


1.      Diff b/w interface and Abstract  class

2.      What is viewstate and where it is stored

3.      Purpose of FXCOP

4.      What is unmanaged code? How CLR executes Unmanaged code

5.      Write a SP that returns the largest of two numbers



EMids Technologies Pvt Ltd

1.      In FXCOP can we define our own custom rules? How ?

2.      Diff b/w Sqlserver 2000 and 2005

3.      Equals method comes under {String} class


Tostring, Equals,GetHashCode , GetType .. default  methods of an Object

4.      What is the default base class for all classes  Ans: System.Object

5.      Base class for pages

6.      Base class for Windows Forms

7.      What is the diff b/w Class and object? Real world example?

8.      Diff b/w HTML Server control and Web server control? What is the base class for these two controls? Can we convert HTML server control to webserver control?

9.      How to call javascript function?  Where we will write the code for calling the function

10.  There is an Employee table. What are the steps involved in populating the datagrid with this table

Employee IDs from 1 to 5000 are there. Without changing the query in the above example fill the datagrid with values Empid < 100

Ans: Use Dataview for filtering the records in dataset

11.  Diff b/w Stored Procedure and function

12.  What are the parameters of SP ? What is the default parameter in SP. Ans: In,Out, INOUT and default is IN

13.  Two textboxes and submit button is there. Which validation control in to be used to validate those textboxes. What are the properties to be set in validation controls? Ans: ControlToValidate and ErrorMessage

Without using validation controls how to validate the above things.Any properties are there.? How to validate controls through coding



FCG (5/12/2006)

1.      Diff b/w Interface and Abstract class? When to use these ?

2.      What is an Assembly

3.      Diff b/w custom and user controls

4.      Diff b/w DataSet and DataReader

5.      Diff b/w DataSet and DataTable

6.      Diff b/w Overloading and Overriding with example codes

7.      What is runtime polymorphism  and compile time polymorphism

8.      What is Static Binding, Dynamic Binding

9.      What is Late and Early Binding

10.  What are the different ways of using NEW operator

11.  What is AS,IS in C#

Ans: AS is for type casting

    IS is for comparing objects

12.  What are Transactions in Sqlserver and in ADO.Net

13.  What are ACID properties?

14.  What are LOCKS. Diff Locks

15.  Concurrency

16.  Isolation levels

17.  Diff b/w Convert.ToString() and ToString()

18.  diff b/w ParseInt and int.Parse() and what is IsParseInt

19.  If two developers are updating data into the same dataset then how the dataset will update the data

20.  What is Biztalk Orchestration?

21.   How to use the webservice to get the document from Document Library in SharePoint

22.  Want to give some permissions to the documents in the document library so that users can see only particular documents. How to achieve this?

23.  What is base class for ASP.Net Page ? Ans: System.Web.UI.Page

24.  System.Object – >  a. GetType

                                b. GetHashCode

                                c. ToString

                                 d. Equals

25.   Types of Polymorphism?

26.  Types of Caching and with example code

27.  Session Management

28.  What are the conditions to use INPROC/OutProc

          InProc …. When we want to work with only one webserver

          OutProc…. When we have multiple webservers

29.  NUNIT, FXCOP . Write unit test cases in NUNIT

30.  C# access specifiers. What is default Access Specifier Ans: Public

31.  Diff b/w internal and Protected Internal

32.  What are Out and Ref parameters in C#

         For out no need to initialize , Ref needs initialization

33.  What is Call By Value and Call By Reference

34.  Specify default base classes for following controls

Control Name
 Base Class
HTML Controls
Asp.Net page
Asp.Net WebPart

35.  What is Implicit Type Conversion

Ans: Converts smaller datatype to higher datatype

36.  What is Garbage Collection

In C# explain

What are the namespaces


Different Periods in GC

37.  How to use these tools


NCOVER – Code Coverage

NUNIT  – Unit Testing tool

FXCOP – Code Analysis Tool


NANT – deployment scripting tool





1.      What is the use of FileUpload Control? Default file size: 4 MB.Cane we increase the     default file size?

Ans: Yes by using MaxRequestLimit

2.      What is transaction? Ans: Process following ACID rules

3.      When to use interface?Can we overwrite virtual functions? How multiple inheritance is possible in C#?

4.      function overloading is early binding,function overriding is late binding

5.      Diff  b/w XML Serialization & binary serialization.

Ans: XML Serialization – Webservices

         SOAP Serialization for Remoting

6.      How to refresh an aspx page automatically. Ans : by using meta tag

7.      Is clustered index created automatically?                                                                                                                                                         Ans: when we are create primary key on a table.

8.      Diff b/w dispose and finalize?

9.      Diff b/w Web services and Remoting

10.  what is a delegate? what are event delegates?

11.  How to avoid SQL Injection?



US Technologies


1.      Diff b/w interface and abstract class? Can we create an instance for abstract class?


        When to use: In short,

       We can go with a normal class when the class contains the core business logic,if not we can use either abstract class or interface.

        If the base class have some default behavior which applies to all its derived classes the abstract class is to be used.

        If there is no default behavior and every derived has its own implementation then interface is better.

      Some more extra points not covered in the above article:

        In case of interface to implement the methods we use ‘override’key word, But in case of abstract class we use’ virtual’ keyword.
     A class may implement several interfaces but A class may extend only one abstract class.



2.      How to create a web part and how to place the web part in Share point portal?

3.      How to GAC the dll? What happens when we GAC a DLL? Where the DLL is stored?

4.      What is the use of stored procedure? What happens when a SP is compiled?

5.      Types of Joins.

        Ans: Inner Join, Left Outer Join, Right Outer Join, full join Cross Join, Self Join.

6.      Use of Createchildcontrols and RenderContents methods of web part creation

7.      Bubbling Events:

        Event bubbling is used by the data-bound controls (Repeater, DataList, and DataGrid)

      8.   What is the namespace that is used for sending email?

             Ans: System.Net.Mail


      9. How to use user controls in web.config

                 <add tagPrefix=”scottgu” src=”~/Controls/Header.ascx” tagName=”header”/>
                <add tagPrefix=”scottgu” src=”~/Controls/Footer.ascx” tagName=”footer”/>
                <add tagPrefix=”ControlVendor” assembly=”ControlVendorAssembly”/>

          we can use custom controls as well in web.config file





.NET Interview Questions Part-X

November 2, 2009


Keane India


  1. Biztalk

What are functoids ? String functoids, Value functoids


  1. Runtime Polymorphism

(or Overloading or Late Binding)


       Eg: int function1(int a, int b)

              int function1(float a,float b)

              int function1(int a, int b,int c)

              float function1(int a , int b)


  1. What is function overriding?


  1. Difference between interface and abstract?


  1. Give example for Self Join?





EmpId DeptId EmpName
1 1 Emp1
2 1 Emp2
3 2 Emp3
4 2 Emp4
5 2 Emp5
6 2 Emp6




DeptId DeptName


Required Result should appear like the below:


DeptId DeptName NumberOfEmployees
1 CSE 2
2 MECH 4



Select Emp.DeptId, Dept.DeptName, Count(*) As NumberOfEmployees from

Employee Emp inner join Department Dept

On Emp.DeptId = Dept.DeptId

Group by Emp.DeptId, Dept.DeptName




Department (Master table)

DeptId DeptName


Employee (Child Table)

EmpId EmployeeName DeptId
1 Emp1 Null
2 Emp2 Null


Can we insert null value in deptid column in Employee table (child table)?


Ans : Yes (doubt)




Employee table : Here EmployeeName has unique constraint

EmpId EmployeeName
1 Emp1
2 Emp2


Can we insert a null value for EmployeeName 2 times simultaneously like:


Insert into Employee values(3,null)

   … Success

Insert into Employee values(4,null)

   … Failure

Insert into Employee values(5,’’)


Insert into Employee values(6,’’)





RealSoft Inc. Bangalore


  1. Caching



            a. Output (Page)

    1.  Fragment
    2. Data



  1. How values can be maintained in cross paging

Ans: Get,Post,cache, Application variable, Sessionss


  1. What are delegates ? Different types? How to create and when to use them?


  1. What are custom controls and user controls in Asp.Net


Custom Controls have these methods: CreateChildNode(), Render()

UserControls have RaiseEvent() method


UserControl Custom Control


Will be included in Toolbox framework


Can be used in any project


5.What are the methods of webparts?

   CreateChildControls, render


   What are the controls that are present in Toolbox for Webpart?

   WebPartManager, WebPart Zone etc..


   How to debug and deploy a webpart


  1. Different UML diagrams

     Ans:Class Diagrams, Sequence Diagrams


  1. Xml


  1. WebServices


  1. Difference b/w Sqlserver 2000 and 2005


  1. What are the methods in DataView?

Ans: sorting, finding records by using RowFilter


10.If we made any modifications in  a dataset then what is the method ?

Ans : Update

How many operations are performed ?

Ans: Only the updated records

If  new records are inserted then how it effects?


  1. Different types of css styles


  1. page level


 Function cssfunction()


Font: bold;

Sixe: 10;




<input type = text class= cssfunction()></input>



2nd Type:


In Form2.css we have defined all functions of css

And in Form3.aspx we are using these functions by using link tag




<link href=form2.css >









3rd  Type : Control Level


<input type = “text” class = font:bold/>